韓洪溝老村復興計畫

大槐樹下的場院

何崴

場地現狀:老村的公共空間和精神之地

Site status: public space and spiritual place of the old village

專案位於山西省沁源縣韓洪溝老村。村莊位於縣城東部城郊結合處,距離縣城4公里。村莊始建於明洪武年間,因村中有一條洩洪溝而得名。全村共有138戶,人口488人。老村現狀絕大部分人口已經遷至新村居住,老村中只有4戶居民常住。

The project is in the old Hanhonggou Village, Qinyuan County, Shanxi Province, China. The village is located at the junction of the eastern suburbs of the county, 4 kilometers away from the county seat. The village was built in Hongwu Period of Ming Dynasty, named after a flood discharge ditch in the village. There are 138 households in the village, with a population of 488. At present, most of the population in the old village has moved to live in the new village, and only four residents in the old village live there.

▲ 大雪中的村落,红色装置格外醒目

老村與新村毗鄰,村莊原始格局完整,自西向東呈多級臺地地形;建築依地形而建,大致分為土牆雙坡頂民居,窯洞兩種,平地區域多為雙坡頂民居,山坡邊以窯洞為主。老村建築傳統風貌保持良好,保留有古樹、古護坡等歷史痕跡,具有較高的文化價值。此外因為是抗戰時期太岳區黨政軍機關後勤部門的所在地,村莊中還留有多處當年紅色記憶的舊址,也為韓洪溝村未來發展提供了支點。

The old village is adjacent to the new village, and the original pattern of the village is complete. From west to east, the village is in a multi-level platform terrain. The buildings are built according to the terrain, which can be roughly divided into two types, i.e. residential houses with earth wall and double slope roofs, mostly in the flat area, and cave houses, mostly near the hillside. The traditional features of the old village buildings are well preserved, with the historical traces of ancient trees and ancient slope protection, which has a high cultural value. In addition, because it was the location of the Logistics Department of the party, government and army in Taiyue District during the Anti-Japanese War, there were many old sites with red memories of that year in the village, which also provide a fulcrum for the future development of Hanhonggou Village.

The old village is adjacent to the new village, and the original pattern of the village is complete. From west to east, the village is in a multi-level platform terrain. The buildings are built according to the terrain, which can be roughly divided into two types, i.e. residential houses with earth wall and double slope roofs, mostly in the flat area, and cave houses, mostly near the hillside. The traditional features of the old village buildings are well preserved, with the historical traces of ancient trees and ancient slope protection, which has a high cultural value. In addition, because it was the location of the Logistics Department of the party, government and army in Taiyue District during the Anti-Japanese War, there were many old sites with red memories of that year in the village, which also provide a fulcrum for the future development of Hanhonggou Village.

▲ 基地原貌

老村絕大部分房屋屬於閒置狀態,常年無人居住和年久失修使大部分房屋或多或少存在損壞情況;此外,人口的外遷,缺乏產業支撐,也使韓洪溝老村日漸凋敝。如何在保留村莊傳統面貌的同時,植入新的產業,拉動村莊經濟,改善環境和村民生活品質,增強村莊活力,最終完成鄉村振興,是本次工作面臨的挑戰和需要解決的問題。

Most of the houses in the old village are in idle state and, because of the uninhabited and disrepair all the year round, are more or less damaged. In addition, the continuously moving out population and the lack of industrial support also make the old village in Hanhonggou wither day by day. How to keep the traditional face of the village, at the same time, implant new industries, promote the village economy, improve the environment and the quality of life of the villagers, enhance the vitality of the village, and finally complete the revitalization of the village, are the challenges and problems to be solved in this work.

▲ 總平面圖

本項目是韓洪溝老村整體復興計畫一部分,基地是一個三合院,位於韓洪溝老村中部,地勢較高。院落中有一個處空置的三孔窯洞,現狀保持較好,但廂房、倒座、圍牆和院門已經坍塌,只剩下基礎的石塊。場地中最為重要的元素是院外的大槐樹。它已經有數百年的樹齡,但仍然枝繁葉茂,如同神靈般守護著村莊。聽村裡老人介紹,大槐樹下一直是村民集會的地方,以前是韓洪溝老村重要的公共空間,也是村莊的精神之地。

This project is a part of the overall rehabilitation plan of the old Hanhonggou Village, of which the base is a courtyard, located in the middle of the old village, with high terrain. There is an empty three-hole cave house in the courtyard. The current situation is good, but the side rooms, a reversely-set house (north facing house opposite to the main house), walls and gates have collapsed, leaving only the foundation stones. The most important element in the site is the big locust tree outside the yard, which is hundreds of years old, but still full of branches and leaves, guarding the village like a god. According to the introduction of the old people in the village, under the big locust tree has always been the place where villagers gather, which used to be an important public space and the spiritual place of the old village.

空間營造:重塑場所精神,並給予新的氣質

Space construction: reshape the genius loci and endow new temperament

正如韓洪溝老村的現狀一樣,大槐樹也已經物是人非,昔日的熙熙攘攘早已不復存在。如何重新建構鄉村公共空間,從而重新塑造場所精神(genius loci)是本次設計的重點。此外,設計師也不希望只是簡單的重複歷史,畢竟韓洪溝老村已經有了新的產業定位,即:基於地域建築風貌和紅色歷史傳承的鄉村旅遊。新的鄉民,新的產業定位,需要大槐樹和樹下空間扮演新的角色。

Just like the current situation of old Hanhonggou Village, the big locust tree has changed, and the bustling of the past no longer exists. How to reconstruct the rural public space, so as to reshape the spirit of place, the genius loci, is the focus of this design. In addition, the designer does not want to simply repeat history. After all, the old Hanhonggou Village has a new industrial orientation, that is, rural tourism based on regional architectural style and red historical heritage. New villagers and new industrial orientation need the big locust tree and the space under it to play a new role.

▲ 草圖

設計師將新功能設定為鄉村記憶館和小劇場。老窯洞被整修,外觀保持原貌,室內空間被重新佈置為小型歷史展廳,用以展示韓洪溝老村的歷史和抗戰時期太嶽軍區的事蹟。坍塌的廂房和倒座並沒有被恢復,設計師並不希望簡單的“修新如舊”,而是希望通過新建築物的加入,給予場地新的場所精神。

The designer set the new functions as rural memory hall and small theater. The old kiln cave was renovated, its appearance remained unchanged, and the interior space was rearranged as a small historical exhibition hall to show the history of old Hanhonggou Village and the deeds of Taiyue military region during the Anti-Japanese war. The collapsed wing rooms and inverted seats have not been restored. The designer does not want to simply "build new as old", but hopes to give the site a new spirit of place through the addition of new buildings.

▲ 施工過程

昔日村民聚集在大槐樹下,互通有無,互相交流的場景給了設計師靈感。這是一個半開放的公共空間:大樹的樹冠限定了場所的“邊界”,樹冠、陰影和人的活動構成了場所的氣質和場所中的事件。這是一種公共空間的原型。

In the past, the villagers gathered under the big locust tree to communicate with each other, which inspired the designer. This is a semi open public space: the crown of the tree defines the "boundary" of the place, and the crown, shadow and human activities constitute the temperament of the space as well as the events in it. This is a prototype of public space.

設計師希望用一種新的、“似是而非”的設計語言,重現這一場景,這一原型。一組傘狀的構築物被設計出來,“傘帽”大小不一,彼此連接,形成由多個圓組成的不規則的“頂”,它覆蓋了院落1/4的面積,並隱約成圍繞大槐樹的半環抱狀。院落西側倒塌廂房的位置,一個室外看臺被構建起來,它呈梯形,東低西高,與老窯洞、大槐樹,以及傘狀構築物一起,重新定義了場地的空間屬性。室外看臺一方面為室外劇場提供了觀眾的座位,另一方面也為俯視村落提供了一個高點。

The designer hopes to reproduce the scene and prototype with a new "specious" design language. A group of umbrella-like structures are designed, with caps in different sizes and connected with each other, forming an irregular "top" composed of multiple circles. It covers 1 / 4 of the courtyard area and looms into a semi encircling shape around the big locust tree. The location of the collapsed wing room on the west side of the courtyard, an outdoor stand is constructed, which is trapezoid in shape, lower in the east and higher in the west. Together with the old kiln cave, big locust tree and umbrella structures, it redefines the spatial attribute of the site. On the one hand, the outdoor stand provides the audience seats for the outdoor theatre. On the other hand, it also provides a high point for overlooking the village.

▲ 軸測圖

▲ 下沉劇場序廳,透過窗戶可以看到村莊

設計師利用戶外看臺斜向樓板下的室內空間設計了一個下沉式劇場,可以放映電影或者影像內容,與戶外看臺功能互補,滿足了北方地區冬季的室內活動需求。小劇場西南側從場地挑出,落地玻璃和石牆形成的虛實對比進一步加強了建築的視覺性,它為進入老村的路徑提供了視覺引導。室內劇場、歷史展廳和室外空間一起,形成了新的大槐樹下公共空間,豐富了鄉村的業餘生活,為本地人及未來的新村民提供了文藝活動的場地。

Using the indoor space under the inclined floor of the outdoor stand, the designer designed a sunken theatre, where movies or video content can be shown, complementing the functions of the outdoor stand, meeting the needs of indoor activities in winter in the northern region. The southwest side of the small theatre overhangs from the site, and the contrast between the real and the virtual formed by the floor-to-ceiling glass and the stone wall further strengthens the visibility of the building, which provides a visual guide for the way into the old village. Together with the indoor theatre, historical exhibition hall and outdoor space, a new public space under the big locust tree has been formed, which enriches the rural spare time life and provides a venue for the local people and the new villagers in the future.

▲ 下沉式劇場放映廳

藝術介入:既可以是建築也可以是裝置

Artistic intervention: both architecture and installation

在這裡,設計師還試圖“混淆”建築與藝術裝置的邊界。室外看臺,傘狀構築物被紅色覆蓋,形成了強烈的,不同於常規建築學的視覺語言。它更趨近於藝術性的表達,單純、強烈,甚至略顯極端;同時,紅色給予了空間一種新的氣場:更開放的公共性,戲劇性、敘事性和張力都比建築語言更簡單,更具力量。

Here, the designer also tries to "confuse" the boundary between architecture and art installation. On the outdoor stands, umbrella-like structures are covered with red color, forming a strong visual language different from conventional architecture. It tends to be more artistic expression, simple, strong, even slightly extreme. At the same time, red gives the space a new aura: more open publicity, dramaticism, narrativity and tension are simpler and more powerful than architectural language.

為了進一步強化這種藝術化語言,設計師在部分圓頂上安裝了反射鏡面。人站立在傘狀構築物下方,可以從反射鏡面中看到自己的影像。自己與自己的對話,使場地更有趣味,更輕鬆,也更容易引起共鳴。

In order to further strengthen this artistic language, the designer installed reflection mirrors on some domes. Standing under the umbrella-like structure, people can see their own image from the reflection mirrors. The dialogue between one and oneself makes the venue more interesting, relaxed and resonant.

▲ 紅色裝置與紅色的看台

▲ 從入村道路拋光挑的劇場

傘狀構築物的支柱除了讓人與空間之間的身體接觸更為豐富外,也進一步加強了戲劇的不確定性。這也是設計師的有意而為:支柱的存在讓戲劇無法以常規的形式出現,但同時也促使表演和空間之間發生關係。當然,倒座位置的空地還是能保證正常表演的進行。無形中,場地變得更為不確定,不同的使用者,使用情況,可以對場地進行重新定義。這也許正是後工業時代所需要的空間模式。

In addition to enriching the physical contact between human and space, the pillars of umbrella-like structures further strengthen the uncertainty of drama, which is also the designer's intention: the existence of pillars makes the drama unable to appear in the conventional form, but also promotes the relationship between performance and space. Certainly, the open space in the inverted seat position can ensure the normal performance. Virtually, the site has become more uncertain, which can be redefined by different users and use conditions. This might be the space model needed in the post-industrial era.

▲ 夜晚場景

講好紅色故事:色彩、材質、明暗對比中的娓娓道來

Tell good red stories: storytelling in the contrasts of colors, materials, light and darkness

▲ 由老窯洞改造的村史館

設計師認為建築及環境既是過去故事承載體,也可以成為當代故事的敘述者。紅色記憶的展示可以不僅僅是牆面上刻板的展板,更可以是空間體驗,甚至是通過戲劇、活動的方式被人們理解和傳頌。

The designer believes that architecture and environment are not only the carriers of past stories, but also the narrators of contemporary stories. The display of red memory can not only be a rigid display board on the wall, but also a space experience, and even be understood and praised by people through drama and activities.

空間中採用了大量紅色元素以產生特定主題的心理暗示,同時又加入了跳躍的材質(如傘狀構築物下的鏡面材質)讓整體氛圍不至於過分嚴肅。室內外兩個劇場空間產生明暗上的區別,分別對應了觀看歷史影像和當下表演的不同氛圍需求;村史館窯洞內的低矮空間及土牆材質被完整保留,定制的五星壁燈裝置,定義了空間的主題,內部展陳收集了村內的老物件及老照片,使得參觀者可以更真切感受到場地所承載的厚重歷史。

A large number of red elements are used in the space to produce psychological hints of specific themes, while bouncing materials (such as the mirrors under the umbrella-like structures) are added to make the overall atmosphere less serious. There are differences in light and shade between the indoor and outdoor theatre spaces, which respectively correspond to different atmosphere requirements for viewing historical images and performing at present. The low space and earth wall materials in the kiln cave of the village history museum are completely preserved. The customized five-star wall lamp device defines the theme of the space. The internal exhibition collects the old objects and photos in the village, so that visitors can feel more vividly the heavy history borne by the site.

▲ 從入口部分看紅色傘狀裝置

▲ 村史館記錄了太岳軍區一段革命的歷史

設計師希望通過建築及環境的多種空間語言,間接地將場地承載的故事娓娓道來,從而讓使用者在使用空間的過程中,產生對紅色主題的共鳴。

The designer hopes to indirectly narrate the story carried by the site through a variety of space languages of the building and environment, so that the users can resonate with the red themes in the process of using the space.

小結

Conclusion

本專案設計團隊在仔細閱讀場地文脈context的基礎上,通過加入新的功能,重塑場地的場所精神,使之更符合韓洪溝老村的新產業訴求,以及新鄉民的審美和精神需要。在設計手法上,運用當代性的建築和藝術語言形成新與舊的對話。這種對話並不是對抗性的,也不是混淆時代的資訊,而是一種“忘年交”式的共生關係。

On the basis of carefully reading the context of the venue, the design team of the project reshapes the genius loci the venue by adding new functions, so as to make it more in line with the new industrial demands of the old Hanhonggou Village, as well as the aesthetic and spiritual needs of new villagers. In terms of design techniques, the use of contemporary architectural and artistic language forms a dialogue between the new and the old. This kind of dialogue is not antagonistic, nor confusing the information of the times, but a symbiotic relationship of "forgetting the ages".

Project Information

Project Name: 大槐樹下的場院
Location: 山西省沁源縣沁河鎮韓洪溝村

Owner: 沁源縣人民政府

Architect Office: 三文建築

Lead Architects: 何崴、陳龍

Design Team: 桑婉晨、曹詩晴、趙馨澤、李俊琪

Completion Year: 2019年11月

Area: 250平方米

Photographer: 金偉琦,何崴

清華大學建築學院學士

德國斯圖加特大學建築與城市規劃碩士

中央美術學院設計藝術學博士

中央美術學院建築學院,教授,碩士生導師

三文建築創始人

三文建築 / 何崴工作室

[TEAM20 Life 現長期徵稿]

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