老三線的復生|兵工廠遺址改造

三文建築

❚ 背景和原貌:廢棄多時,但潛力巨大

809工廠位於中國湖北省宜昌市郊的下牢溪中,距離市區約30分鐘車程,曾經是老三線兵工廠,1990年代逐漸停產並廢棄。項目用地面積約3公頃,建築面積約1.3萬平米,新功能為度假酒店和親子活動中心。項目旨在通過對這個廢棄工廠的改造和再利用,在保護和展現建築原始面貌的同時,形成新的使用功能,使廢棄工業設施複活,進入當代生活。

809廠位於一個峽谷中,喀斯特地貌,場地高差大,地質條件複雜。峽谷名為下牢溪,環境優美、舒適,是宜昌市民夏季避暑的首選地之一。峽谷中有溪流,常年有水,且水質優良,適合游泳和休閒。改造前,該區域已經有大量的農家樂和小型度假遊樂場。 809廠位於下牢溪中段,與溪流關係緊密,具備很好的自然環境和產業基礎。

809廠曾是西部地區重要的兵工廠,以生產防毒面具為主。改造前,工廠已經停產多時,期間也曾出租給民營企業。廠房中的機械已經全部被移除,整個廠區只留下建築本體。調研中,建築師發現現存建築主要分為三類:空間跨度大的廠房,中等尺度的設備用房,如鍋爐房等,及空間尺度小的宿舍和辦公建築。原建築建設時期跨域1950-70年代,主要為磚混預製樓板結構形式,建造工藝包括毛石砌築,磚牆,預製混凝土樓板,大多數已經不符合當下的建築法規,需要進行結構加固和再處理。但另一方面,正是這些不同時期的建造痕跡產生了極大的文化價值,反映了那個時期老三線工廠的歷史記憶和建築文化價值。設計需要保留原有建築的大部分外立面,同時又要滿足新的使用和法規要求,這給設計帶來了很大的困難。

❚ Background and original appearance: abandoned for a long time, but with great potential

The 809 factory is located in Xialao Creek, the suburb of Yichang City, Hubei Province, China, which is about 30 minutes’ drive from downtown. Once a military factory, it was gradually shut down and abandoned in the 1990s. The project covers an area of about 3 hectares and a construction area of about 13000 square meters. The new function is a resort hotel and parent-child activity center. The purpose of the project is to protect and show the original appearance of the buildings and form a new use function through the transformation and reuse of the abandoned factory, so as to revive the abandoned industrial facilities and help those enter the contemporary life.

The 809 factory is located in a canyon with karst landform, large site height difference and complex geological conditions. The canyon is named Xialao Creek, with beautiful and comfortable environment. It is one of the best summer resorts for Yichang citizens. There are streams in the canyon, with water flowing all year round, and the water quality is excellent, suitable for swimming and leisure. Before the renovation, there had been a large number of farmhouses and small resorts in the area. The 809 factory is located in the middle part of Xialao Creek, which is closely related to the stream and has a good natural environment and industrial foundation.

The 809 factory used to be an important military factory in the western region, mainly producing gas masks. Before the transformation, the factory had been shut down for a long time, during which it was also rented to private enterprises. All the machinery in the plant has been removed, leaving only the building itself. In the survey, architects found that the existing buildings are mainly divided into three categories: workshops with large space span, equipment rooms with medium scale, such as boiler house, and dormitories and office buildings with small space scale. The original building construction period is from 1950s to 1970s, mainly in the form of brick concrete precast floor structure. The construction technology includes rubble masonry, brick wall, precast concrete floor. Most of them are not in line with the current building laws and regulations, and need to be strengthened and reprocessed. But on the other hand, it is these construction traces in different periods that produce great cultural value, reflecting the historical memory and architectural cultural value of the old third line factory in that period. The design needs to retain most of the facade of the original building, but also to meet the new use and regulatory requirements, which brings great difficulties to the design.

❚ 設計原則和思路:

設計希望通過對老三線工廠遺址的改造,賦予空間新的生命,使之從廢棄狀態重新復活。在新的功能業態,及新空間的雙重作用下,業主和建築師希望重構一個新 809 廠。改造後,它將成為宜昌人短期度假的首選,並為城市提供一處具有品味和調性的精緻生活場所。

設計從場地規劃開始,將建築、室內、景觀、照明一體化考慮,最大限度的保留原建築的工業特徵和歷史信息,並進行改造再利用。設計首先對工業遺產進行保護,通過結構加固等措施,保留建築外觀原貌。之後,選擇性的利用原建築空間植入新功能,如原宿舍改為酒店客房,原鍋爐房改為禮堂,原辦公樓和設備用房改為餐廳、接待中心等。在此基礎上,在場地重要節點位置設置新公共建築,形成空間和視覺上的錨點,如酒店大堂,區域入口處的書吧,崖頂的茶吧等。新建築與老建築在形式和材料上刻意進行了區分,形成戲劇性的對話關係,也清晰的標明了兩個不同歷史階段的空間特點和建築語言。

 

場地中的主要樹木被保留,新建築避讓樹木建設,與樹木形成共生關係。夜晚的燈光處理延續了建築設計的思路,總體寧靜的基礎上,在建築節點處重點處理。客房區域採用 3000K 暖白光,公共區域採用 4000K 左右的中性白光。

❚ Design principles and ideas:

Through the reconstruction of the old third-front factory site, the design hopes to give new life to the space and revive it from the abandoned state. Under the dual function of new business form and new space, the owners and architects hope to reconstruct a new 809 factory. After reconstruction, it will become the first choice of Yichang citizens for short-term vacation, and provide a delicate living place with taste and tonality for the city.

The design starts from the site planning, considers the integration of architecture, interior, landscape and lighting, retains the industrial characteristics and historical information of the original building to the maximum extent, and carries out transformation and reuse. First of all, the design protected the industrial heritages and preserved the original appearance of the buildings through structural reinforcement and other measures. After that, the original building spaces were selectively used to implant new functions, incl. changing the original dormitory into hotel rooms, the original boiler-house into auditorium, the original office building and equipment rooms into restaurant, reception center, etc. On this basis, new public buildings are set up at important nodes of the site to form space and visual anchor points, such as hotel lobby, book bar at the entrance of the area, tea bar at the top of the cliff, and so on. The new building and the old building are deliberately distinguished in form and material, forming a dramatic dialogue relationship, and clearly indicating the spatial characteristics and architectural language of the two different historical stages.

The main trees in the site are reserved, and the construction of new buildings avoided the trees, forming a symbiotic relationship with the trees. The lighting treatment at night continues the thinking of architectural design, which, based on the overall tranquility, focuses on the treatment of building nodes. 3000K warm white light is used in guest room area while 4000K neutral white light in public area.

❚ 客房:梳理交通,重組空間

 

客房由原工廠的員工宿舍改造而成。原宿舍共4棟,呈南北向平行排布,它們的建設年代並不完全一致,這給改造帶來了極大的不確定性。首先在結構上四棟建築並不一樣,牆體有二四磚牆、空頭磚牆、碎石填充牆幾種,樓板則是預製槽板;此外,房間的空間佈局也多達十幾種。如何在充分利用原有物理空間的基礎上,滿足酒店客房的使用需要,滿足現行規範,滿足安全等要求是此部分設計工作的難度和痛點。

對於東側靠近山坡的兩棟宿舍,設計首先保留了原有的交通組織方式,即:位於建築中部的垂直交通和建築西側的外走廊;之後,在兩棟建築的連接部分,拆除部分宿舍房間,新增垂直樓梯和電梯,及公共空間。南側的宿舍樓被改造為青年旅社,北側的宿舍樓則改造為標間。這樣的處理一方面基於客房數的考慮,另一方面也由於此兩棟建築並不具備開闊的視野,因此定位為平價房間。

西側的兩棟宿舍向西視野開闊,能看到溪流和峽谷對面的山峰,具有較高的市場價值。但原建築的水平交通位於西側,與未來客房的觀景面矛盾,建築師將新的交通調整到建築東側,新設樓梯、電梯和外走廊。原走廊被拆除,新建陽台,增加室內面積的同時,為顧客提供更舒適的觀景體驗。北側客房為標準間,陽台呈不對稱的梯形,兩兩成組,形成富於韻律感的外立面;南側客房則是套間,陽台交替分佈,改變了原來宿舍建築刻板的外立面。新建築部分為白色,與原建築紅磚和毛石的外牆形成對比,顯示了不同時期的特徵。

 

客房室內首先進行了結構加固,並增設洗手間,滿足酒店的安全和基本功能需求。為了體現老三線工廠的歷史信息,部分房間的屋頂保留了原始的槽板,牆面也在特定位置暴露部分原始牆面。因為酒店的總體定位不屬於奢華型酒店,在裝修和家具選擇上較為樸素,並有意選擇了工業風格的產品,與整個區域的主題呼應。

❚ Guest rooms: traffic arrangement and space reorganization

The guest room is transformed from the dormitory of the original factory. There are 4 original dormitories, which are arranged in parallel from north to south. Their construction dates are not completely the same, which brings great uncertainty to the reconstruction. First of all, the four buildings are not the same in structure. There are twenty-four brick walls, hollow brick walls and gravel filled walls, and the floor slab is prefabricated trough slab. In addition, there are as many as ten kinds of room layout. Based on making full use of the original physical space, how to meet the needs of hotel rooms, to meet the current norms, and to meet the safety requirements, are the difficulty and pain of this part of the design work.

 

For the two dormitories close to the hillside in the East, the original traffic organization mode is retained in the design, that is, the vertical traffic in the middle of the building and the external corridor in the west of the building; then, in the connection part of the two buildings, some dormitory rooms are removed, vertical stairs and electric ladders are added, and public space is removed. The dormitory building on the south side was transformed into a Youth Hostel, while the dormitory building on the north side was transformed into standard guest rooms. On the one hand, such treatment is based on the number of rooms, on the other hand, because these two buildings do not have a broad vision, they are positioned as affordable rooms.

 

The two dormitories on the west side have a wide view to the West and can see the peaks opposite the streams and canyons, which have a high market value. However, the horizontal traffic of the original building is located on the west side, which is in conflict with the view surface of the future guest rooms. Therefore, the architect adjusted the new traffic to the east side of the building, and set up new stairs, elevators and external corridors. The original corridors have been demolished and new balconies have been built to increase the indoor area and provide customers with a more comfortable viewing experience. The rooms on the north side are standard rooms, and the balconies are asymmetric trapezoid, in groups of two, forming a rhythmic facade; the rooms on the south side are suites, with balconies alternately distributed, changing the original dormitory building's rigid facade. The white part of the new building, in contrast to the red brick and rubble of the original building, shows the characteristics of different periods.

 

First of all, the structure of the guest rooms has been strengthened, and toilets are added, to meet the safety and basic functional requirements of the hotel. In order to reflect the historical information of the old third line factory, the roofs of some rooms retain the original slot boards, and the wall surfaces also expose part of the original wall surfaces at specific locations. Because the overall positioning of the hotel does not belong to luxury hotel, it is simple in decoration and furniture selection, and industrial style products deliberately are chosen, echoing the theme of the whole region.

大堂:利用體塊穿插,營造區域標誌

 

酒店大堂是新建,它位於四棟客房建築與西餐廳中間,起到了公共區域和私密區域阻隔和轉換的作用。建築分為兩層,由四個建築體塊互相穿插構成。首層為酒店大堂,包含前台,休息等待區等功能,通過橙色的酒廊,大堂空間與西餐廳的三層相連。二層則是環形展廳,可以舉辦活動和展覽。從一層到二層除了可以走室內樓梯,也可以使用室外的大階梯。

在建築師看來,新建大堂應該成為新 809 的地標。它需要被從遠處清晰的捕捉到,並吸引客人進入新 809 區域。為了達到這個目的,建築被刻意設計的具有視覺張力:超尺度的幾何體塊相互穿插,不同材料和強烈顏色的對撞,形成了不同於日常生活的視覺與感官體驗。一層大堂不規則的形式既與場地地形有關,又避讓了空間中原有的樹木。二層的環形展廳採用全玻璃幕牆,它「飛架」在一層之上,為使用者提供了 360 度的觀景面。彎折的酒廊,南側插入西餐廳建築體塊中,北側挑出於混凝土陡坎之上,形成強烈動勢,其標高與西餐廳三樓的早餐廳一致,起到了連接大堂及早餐廳的交通功能。酒廊外皮由橙色的金屬網覆蓋,室內也同樣被橙色覆蓋,強調了建築體塊的同時也顛覆著使用者的感官。斜向的室外大樓梯被深褐色的金屬表皮包裹,成為一個斜插向天空的方筒,表皮上的圓孔讓內部形成豐富的光影效果,營造了一種「不真實」感。這一切都與原 809 廠的老三線風格不一樣,新老建築形成了強烈的視覺對沖,但正是因為這種對沖,讓舊者更舊,新者更新。

為了實現大堂建築特殊的形態,建築師與結構工程師付出了巨大的努力。建築整體採用鋼結構,為了得到一個盡量通透的環形展廊,並保證一層建築室內的舒適性,環形展廳的由三組巨型鋼柱支撐,它們呈 120 度排布,分別隱藏在大堂的服務型空間和酒廊空間內,從室外無法察覺。環形展廳由 9 組鋼柱支撐,它如同一個環形「盒子」放置在一層結構上。斜向的大階梯及包裹它的筒則如同一根巨大的方柱斜插於圓環中,起到了不同高程的交通聯繫。四個建築體塊看似相互倚靠堆疊,實則結構相互獨立,自成系統,這樣的處理保證了建築結構的安全性。場地複雜的高差、不確定的地質條件(喀斯特地貌),毗鄰的老建築基礎的避讓和場地內原始樹木的保留等問題都給項目實施過程帶來了巨大的挑戰,建築師、結構工程師及施工單位面臨並一一克服這些問題,最終完成了建築複雜形體的建造及表達。

Lobby: using body blocks to create regional signs

 

The lobby of the hotel is newly built. It is located between the four guest buildings and the western restaurant, which acts as a barrier and transformation between public areas and private areas. The building is divided into two layers, which are composed of four building blocks interpenetrating with each other. The first floor is the lobby of the hotel, including the functions of front desk, waiting area and so on. Through the orange lounge, the lobby space is connected with the third floor of the western restaurant. On the second floor is the circular exhibition hall, where activities and exhibitions can be held. From the first floor to the second floor, you can not only take the indoor stairs, but also use the outdoor large stairs.

 

According to architects, the new lobby should be the landmark of the new 809. It needs to be clearly captured from a distance and attract guests into the new 809 area. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture is deliberately designed with visual tension: super scale geometric blocks interpenetrate with each other, different materials and strong colors collide, forming a visual and sensory experience different from daily life. The irregular form of the first floor lobby is not only related to the site topography, but also avoids the original trees in the space. The circular exhibition hall on the second floor adopts the full glass curtain wall, which is "flying" over the first floor, providing users with a 360 degree view. The crooked lounge is inserted into the building block of the western restaurant in the south, and lifted from the concrete steep ridge in the north, forming a strong momentum. Its elevation is the same as that of the western restaurant on the third floor, which plays the traffic function of connecting the lobby and the early restaurant. The outer skin of the lounge is covered with orange metal mesh, and the interior is also covered with orange, which emphasizes the building block and subverts the user's senses. The slanting outdoor staircase is wrapped by dark brown metal skin, which becomes a square tube leading into the sky. The round holes on the skin endow the interior with rich light and shadow effects, creating a sense of "unreality". All these are different from the old third-front style of the original 809 factory. The new and old buildings form a strong visual hedge, but it is precisely because of this hedge that the old ones are older and the new ones are newer.

 

In order to realize the special form of lobby architecture, architects and structural engineers have made great efforts. The whole building is of steel structure. In order to get a transparent circular exhibition gallery as much as possible and ensure the indoor comfort of the first floor building, the circular exhibition hall is supported by three groups of giant steel columns, which are arranged at 120 degrees, hidden in the service-oriented space and the lounge space of the lobby respectively, and cannot be detected from the outside. The circular exhibition hall is supported by 9 sets of steel columns, which is placed on the first floor like a circular "box". The oblique large ladder and the tube surrounding it are like a huge square column which is inserted in the ring obliquely, playing a traffic connection of different elevations. The four building blocks seem to rely on each other for stacking, but in fact, the structure is independent and self-contained, which ensures the safety of the building structure. The complex height difference, uncertain geological conditions (karst landform), the avoidance of the adjacent old building foundation and the reservation of the original trees in the site all brought great challenges to the project implementation process. Architects, structural engineers and construction units faced and overcome these problems one by one, and finally completed the construction and expression of the complex building shape.

餐廳及多功能廳:因勢利導,甘當配角

 

除了由宿舍改造的客房,新建的大堂和展廳,酒店的中餐廳和多功能廳也由原 809 廠的既有空間改造而成。秉承區域設計的總原則,即在保留原有老三線工廠建築外觀信息的情況下,改造建築內部空間,使之具有新功能。中餐廳和多功能廳都盡量利用原有建築,形成新與舊的對話。

 

西餐廳 / 早餐廳位於大堂一側,原址上有一座 3 層的辦公樓。新建築建於老建築的基址上,建築外觀保持了老建築的主要特徵,在門窗和細節的處理上融入了現代表達。室內空間根據新的使用功能佈置,一層為咖啡廳,二層為棋牌室,三層為西餐廳/早餐廳。 總體上,幾個餐廳和多功能廳在外觀上都相對低調:不求張揚,甘當配角。它們與客房一起形成圍繞大堂主體建築的「基底」,公共服務於新 809 區域。

Restaurants and multi-functional hall: making the best of the situation and being a supporting role

 

In addition to the guest rooms transformed from dormitories, the new lobby and exhibition hall, the Chinese restaurant and multi-functional hall of the hotel are also transformed from the existing space of the original 809 factory. Adhering to the general principle of regional design, that is, under the condition of retaining the appearance information of the original third-front factory building, the internal space of the building is transformed to have new functions, both Chinese restaurants and multi-functional halls try to use the original buildings to form a new and old dialogue.

 

The western restaurant / breakfast restaurant is located on the side of the lobby. There was a 3-story office building on the original site. The new building is built on the base of the old building. The appearance of the building keeps the main features of the old building, and modern expression is integrated into the treatment of doors, windows and details. The indoor space is arranged according to the new use function: the first floor is a coffee shop, the second floor a chess and card room, and the third floor a western restaurant / breakfast restaurant.

 

On the whole, several restaurants and multi-functional halls are relatively low-key in appearance: not displaying, but as a supporting role. Together with the guest rooms, they form the "foundation base" around the main building of the lobby, serving the new 809 area.

結語:

 

809 廠是中國西部地區老三線兵工廠的一個縮影。 1950-60 年代,中國西部興建了大量的兵工廠,他們多為磚石結構,反映特定時代中國西部地區工業建築的特點。隨著 1990 年代,中國經濟的發展,產業轉型,大部分此類兵工廠都已經停產、廢棄,但建築作為一種歷史記錄仍然具有文化價值。本案是在保護歷史信息基礎上,最大限度激活此類工業遺存的一種嘗試。

 

中國以往的工業遺存改造後,功能多以文化產業園、藝術園區為主,這類功能對於西部地區,非城市區域的工業遺存並不適用。本案改造後的新功能為酒店,是近年來中國工廠改造中較特殊的一個,對中國西部工業遺存的再利用具有創新意義。

Epilogue:

 

The 809 factory is a miniature of the historic Third-Front arsenals in Western China. In 1950-60's, a large number of military factories were built in Western China, most of them are brick and stone structures, reflecting the characteristics of industrial buildings in Western China in a specific era. With the development of China's economy and industrial transformation in the 1990s, most of these arsenals have been shut down and abandoned, but as a historical record, the architecture still has cultural value. This case is an attempt to maximize the activation of such industrial remains on the basis of protecting historical information.

 

After the transformation of China's former industrial relics, the main functions are cultural industrial parks and art parks. However, such functions are not applicable to the Industrial Relics in non-urban areas of China’s western regions. The new function of this case is a resort hotel, which is a special one in the transformation of Chinese factories in recent years, which is of great innovative significance for the reuse of Industrial relics in Western China.

​專案圖紙

Project Information

Project Name: 809 兵工廠遺址改造

Location: 中國湖北省宜昌市

Architect Offiece: 三文建築

Lead Architects: 何崴、陳龍

Design Team: 趙卓然、李強、宋珂、張天偃、李星露、桑婉晨、吳前鋮(實習)、黃士林(實習)、周奇(實習)、李婉(實習)

Completion Year: 2020 年 4 月

Area: 12900 m²

三文建築 / 何崴工作室

中央美術學院建築學院,教授,碩士生導師

三文建築創始人

清華大學建築學院學士

德國斯圖加特大學建築與城市規劃碩士

中央美術學院設計藝術學博士

[TEAM20 Life 現長期徵稿]

如果你對建築設計有興趣、樂於分享內容,歡迎投稿給我們,並附上 300 字內的個人簡介與近照一張。文章若經採用將由 TEAM20 Life 編排,也會開設你的個人專欄喔!

投稿信箱:team20.xyz@gmail.com 

© 2020  TEAM20    Copyright©2020